How to define a front-end developer

Devoting myself (or allowing myself to be dragged away by the carneval in childish glee) to Ajax and JavaScript the last years has changed the way I've looked at the composition of software teams and of projects. Today, the breakdown is glaringly obvious to me. But since it is the result of a kind of private mental jorney what is obvious to me need not be so to someone else.

I'm talking about the emerging role of the front-end developer, of course. Big deal you might say, I know what that guy does, but I'm not completely sure that everyobdy agree on that, hence this post.

In the days of yore, what you did on a computer was program, period.  Then came specializations of different kinds, like a dot painted on an expanding baloon becomes a circle. And still the expansion continues.

The traditional breakdown of duties in web-related projects has been in browser-specific things and server-specific things. That's actually very good, since this breakdown at least in part acknowledges the client as an entity. The role of the front-end (browser) team has been to create and manage the design and looks of the application, whereas the back-end team create and manage _all_ application logic, including client states (open trees, selected tabs, et.c.).

The front-end team was to be called designers, with en emphasis on producing HTML/CSS templates and all the Photoshop magic required for the quiltwork of images needed to give an illusion of a real application.

Later on these designers were asked to do some dynamic scripting to produce effects of various kinds, effectively becoming programmers in a way, even though their original vocation was that of esthetics and visual design. I don't say you can't mix the two,I'm just saying that in my experience the two fields draw two different personalities.

And on the other end, since the server-based frameworks need to slice, pickle and transform the provided templates into something that their server-side templating system can use, they get exposed to a lot of borderline design descisions, which is not something they originally signed up for either.

The result is that there is suddenly a risk that people are required and/or forced to make decisions and produce work for which they have both a minor talent in and doesn't really feel like, personally.

But that is a dicsussion of whether or not to use Thin Server Architecture (or any of its synonyms and special cases), so let's assume that we have a sane architecture with a cleanly separated front-end and back-end (REST or RESTish, preferrably), how do we look for talent in this brave new world?

Looking at ads for front-end developers shows a plethora of confusion. First of all the same kind of job might be defined as a designer, UI expert, Ajax developer, front-end programmer, Web designer, JavaScript programmer or any permutations thereof, many of which can be applied to a true designer role as well.

Looking at the skill set that the front-end developer should have we find that he or she must be a veteran of all major US armed conflicts since WWII, be able to design, build and fly a commercial airliner, have discovered at least three different cures for cancer (of which at least should have received the nobel price in either of Medicine, Physics or Chemistry) and also be the founder of two or more major schools of painting, including cubism.

It seems that people are both a little desperate and a little confused. Let me try to make things clearer.

In todays world, we need to have a good designer. The word designer will only be used in a classical sense, i.e. visual design. Skill-set: HTML/CSS, Photoshop/Gimp/whatnot, Usability, Fonts, Color theory, et.c.  Secondary skills: JavaScript, HTTP, Networking fundamentals, some Server-side language.

Then we have the elusive front-end developer. Skill-set: HTML/CSS, JavaScript, Ajax, , HTTP, Networking (latency, routing, distributed storage and processing, security), REST, XML (to argument against its use), SOAP/WSDL (see last comment). Secondary skills: Usability, some Server-side langauge.

The only changed thing with the skill-sets for the back-end team is that they no longer are forced to understand HTML/CSS and a smattering of JS, since there is no longer any server-side templates to massage.

On of my pet peeves is that there is an architect onboard, but he or she has launched the project without many times even decided on which Ajax toolkit to use. It's comparable to launching a project without having specified which back-end to use (Java? Python? Perhaps SSJS?).

Granted, in many cases the project has _not_ launched and the ad is for someone to come in as a front-end lead for the very prupose of evaulating and recommending technologies to use in the client layer, but there's still enough 'wild card' ads out there to make my hairs stand on end (all three of them).

Ok, rant over. I guess what I want to say is that the world is getting larger and more detailed at the same time, and that if you are searching for talent, you have better know what you are looking for, and take the time to be as specific as you can.



Unknown said…
Hi Peter. Good post! The subject is not easy and it is really difficult to condense so many things and years in a few lines.

I just miss in the skill-set something related to engine web browsers.
Script Uncle said…
@imedina: Do you mean that I didn't explicitly add knowledge of browser quirks (IE) and CSS problems? I guess you're right. Then, again, that's almost the subject matter around which everything revolves for a front-end developer :)
Boyet said…
Nice article, here's another one that expands it a bit...
Admin said…
Great read,

3 years later and this confusion is still very strong.

Ads requesting front-end developers/web designers with 3 years of ruby experience are still everywhere.

In fact I actually rarely see an ad requesting the actual skills that a webdesigner/front-end developer should have...